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Publications from the AffiliateMarketIngtools of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes We Treat You (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Released: July 24, 2009
    From 1962 to 1971, US military sprayed herbicides over Vietnam. Because of continuing uncertainty about the long-term health effects of the sprayed herbicides on Vietnam veterans, Congress passed the Agent Orange Act of 1991. The legislation directed the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to request the Institute of Medicine to perform a comprehensive evaluation of scientific and medical information regarding the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides used in Vietnam. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2008 is the eighth report in this series.
  • Released: July 16, 2009
    Humans rely on water, but the rapidly growing human population along with heightened urbanization and poor water management has led to a global water crisis. Increasingly limited water resources and severely limited access to safe drinking water worldwide highlights a global imperative to ensure universal and sustainable access to clean water. The Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine held a workshop on October 17-18, 2007, to stimulate efforts in the urgent issue and reversal of poor water quality, management, and policy.
  • Released: July 10, 2009
    Smallpox was a devastating disease that plagued humankind throughout history. Its eradication in 1980 was a monumental achievement for the global health community. All acknowledged stocks of variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, or materials that might contain the virus, have been transferred to two World Health Organization approved repositories. During the period since eradication, the World Health Assembly (WHA) has debated whether to retain or destroy these stocks of live variola virus. This question will be reconsidered in 2010. In anticipation of this decision, the IOM was asked to revisit the question of scientific needs for live variola virus.
  • Released: June 30, 2009
    Clinical research presents health care providers with information on the natural history and clinical presentations of disease as well as diagnostic and treatment options. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) identifies what works best for which patients under what circumstances. Congress, in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, tasked the IOM to recommend national priorities for research questions to be addressed by CER and supported by ARRA funds. In its 2009 report, Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research, the authoring committee establishes a working definition of CER, develops a priority list of research topics, and identifies the necessary requirements to support a robust and sustainable CER enterprise.
  • Released: June 26, 2009
    The health and economic costs of tobacco use in military and veteran populations are high. In 2007, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) make recommendations on how to reduce tobacco initiation and encourage cessation in both military and veteran populations. In its 2009 report Combating Tobacco in Military and Veteran Populations, the authoring committee concludes that to prevent tobacco initiation and encourage cessa¬tion, both DoD and VA should implement comprehensive tobacco-control programs.
  • Released: June 25, 2009
    In the United States, people living in low-income neighborhoods frequently do not have access to affordable healthy food venues, such as supermarkets. Instead, those living in “food deserts” must rely on convenience stores and small neighborhood stores that offer few, if any, healthy food choices, such as fruits and vegetables. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and National Research Council (NRC) convened a two-day workshop on January 26-27, 2009, to provide input into a Congressionally-mandated food deserts study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service. The workshop provided a forum in which to discuss the public health effects of food deserts.
  • Released: June 19, 2009
    Biomarkers can be defined as indicators of any biologic state, and they are central to the future of medicine. As the cost of developing drugs has risen in recent years, reducing the number of new drugs approved for use, biomarker development may be a way to cut costs, enhance safety, and provide a more focused and rational pathway to drug development. On October 24, 2008, the IOM’s Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held “Assessing and Accelerating Development of Biomarkers for Drug Safety,” a one-day workshop on the value of biomarkers in helping to determine drug safety during development.
  • Released: June 15, 2009
    While the United States has programs in place to stop terrorists from acquiring nuclear materials, deter other nations from helping them launch a nuclear attack, and intercept any attack before it can succeed, we still must consider the possibility that a nuclear attack will occur. The Department of Homeland Security asked the Institute of Medicine in 2008 to conduct a workshop to evaluate medical preparedness for a nuclear detonation. The workshop, titled “Medical Preparedness for a Nuclear Detonation in a Major U.S. City,” assessed the ability of emergency services, healthcare, and federal, state, and local authorities to respond to a nuclear weapon.
  • Released: June 09, 2009
    Depression is a widespread condition affecting approximately 7.5 million parents in the U.S. each year and may be putting at least 15 million children at risk for adverse health outcomes. Based on evidentiary studies, major depression in either parent can interfere with parenting quality and increase the risk of children developing mental, behavioral and social problems. Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children highlights disparities in the prevalence, identification, treatment, and prevention of parental depression among different sociodemographic populations. It also outlines strategies for effective intervention and identifies the need for a more interdisciplinary approach that takes biological, psychological, behavioral, interpersonal, and social contexts into consideration.
  • Released: May 28, 2009
    It has been nearly two decades since guidelines for how much weight a woman should gain during pregnancy were issued by the Institute of Medicine. In that time, more research has been conducted on the effects of weight gain in pregnancy on the health of both mother and baby. There have also been dramatic changes in the population of women having babies. Given these changes, the IOM’s 2009 report Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines examines weight gain during pregnancy from the perspective that factors that affect pregnancy begin before conception and continue through the first year after delivery.
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