About Publications

Publications from the AffiliateMarketIngtools of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes We Treat You (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Released: September 13, 2011
    While state and local policy efforts to reduce health disparities often go unnoticed, some regions have seen real progress in this area. In order to see comparable progress at the national level, it is helpful to identify what has worked at other levels of government. On May 11, 2009, the IOM held a public workshop to discuss the role of state and local policy initiatives to reduce health disparities. The workshop brought together stakeholders to learn more about what works in reducing health disparities and ways to focus on localized efforts when working to reduce health disparities.
  • Released: September 09, 2011
    Fungal diseases have contributed to death and disability in humans, triggered global wildlife extinctions and population declines, devastated agricultural crops, and altered forest ecosystem dynamics. Despite the extensive influence of fungi on health and economic well-being, the threats posed by emerging fungal pathogens to life on Earth are often underappreciated and poorly understood. On December 14 and 15, 2010, the IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop to explore the scientific and policy dimensions associated with the causes and consequences of emerging fungal diseases.
  • Released: August 25, 2011
    Immunizations are a cornerstone of the nation’s efforts to protect people from a host of infectious diseases. Though generally very rare or very minor, there are side effects, or “adverse effects,” associated with some vaccines. The IOM reviewed a list of adverse events associated with eight vaccines to evaluate the scientific evidence about the event–vaccine relationship. Using epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence, the committee developed 158 causality conclusions, assigning each relationship between a vaccine and an adverse health problem to one of four causation categories. Overall, the IOM committee concludes that few health problems are caused by or clearly associated with vaccines.
  • Released: August 10, 2011
    When public health campaigns to buckle up or quit smoking were unsuccessful, legal strategies–such as fines for not wearing a seatbelt and restrictions on where smoking could occur–were used to reduce the number of health issues, injuries, and deaths caused by these behaviors. Childhood obesity is another health concern that remains a substantial problem in the U.S. Could legal restrictions and regulations also help combat childhood obesity? IOM held a workshop October 21, 2010, to bring together stakeholders to discuss the current and future legal strategies aimed at combating childhood obesity.
  • Released: August 02, 2011
    Occupational health nurses (OHNs) are front-line advocates for preventing illness and injury and protecting health in a variety of workplace settings, including the areas of agriculture, construction, health care, manufacturing, and public safety. OHNs need education and training in respiratory protection in order to ensure both their safety and the safety of America’s workers. At the request of the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the IOM examined existing respiratory protection curricula and made recommendations to improve education and training in respiratory protection for OHNs. The IOM finds that current respiratory protection education receives varying amounts of dedicated time and resources and is taught using a variety of approaches. Several recommendations are made to improve the respiratory protection education and training of OHNs.
  • Released: July 29, 2011
    Medical devices that are deemed to have a moderate risk to patients generally cannot go on the market until they are cleared through the FDA 510(k) process. In recent years, individuals and organizations have expressed concern that the 510(k) process is neither making safe and effective devices available to patients nor promoting innovation in the medical-device industry. At the request of the FDA, the IOM examined the 510(k) process and concludes that the FDA’s finite resources should be invested in developing an integrated premarket and postmarket regulatory framework.
  • Released: July 27, 2011
    In order to help reduce the obesity burden on the American population, behavioral scientists have emphasized building an evidence base for understanding what drives the energy imbalance in overweight and obese individuals. Food scientists have tapped into this evidence to develop food technologies that can increase the healthfulness of the food supply by reducing energy density, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and controlling food portion sizes. The IOM held a workshop November 2-3, 2010, to bring together stakeholders to discuss the opportunities and challenges in using food technology to help individuals with long-term weight maintenance.
  • Released: July 25, 2011
    It is essential for patients and clinicians to know which treatments work best for whom if they are to make informed, collaborative care decisions. Despite this need, only a small fraction of health-related expenditures in the U.S. have been devoted to comparative effectiveness research. As part of its Learning Health System series of workshops, the IOM’s Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care hosted a workshop to discuss capacity priorities to build the evidence base necessary for care that is more effective and delivers higher value for patients.
  • Released: July 22, 2011
    Surveillance systems have a potentially key role in reducing the health toll of chronic diseases. Currently, surveillance data are collected from a variety of sources, but there is no national surveillance system to fill the gaps between these monitoring approaches. To help close the gap, the IOM presents a conceptual framework for national surveillance of cardiovascular and chronic lung disease and calls on the Department of Health and Human Services to adopt it and take the lead in developing a national surveillance system.
  • Released: July 22, 2011
    The National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program works to advance patient care and research. Despite broad participation in the program, financial strain and procedural burdens limit the ability of the Cooperative Group Program to undertake medical practice-changing clinical research. The IOM’s National Cancer Policy Forum and the American Society of Clinical Oncology held a workshop on March 21, 2011 to follow up on the 2010 IOM report A National Clinical Trials System for the 21st Century: Reinvigorating the NCI Cooperative Group Program, which made recommendations to strengthen the NCI Cooperative Group Program.
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