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Publications from the AffiliateMarketIngtools of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes We Treat You (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Released: September 27, 2012
    Physical fitness affects our ability to function and be active. At poor levels, it is associated with such health outcomes as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Physical fitness testing in American youth was established on a large scale in the 1950s with an early focus on performance-related fitness that gradually gave way to an emphasis on health-related fitness. In this report, the IOM assesses the relationship between youth fitness test items and health outcomes, recommends the best fitness test items, provides guidance for interpreting fitness scores, and provides an agenda for needed research.
  • Released: September 17, 2012
    Like many sectors of society, the U.S. military has a long history of alcohol and other drug misuse and abuse. In recent years, the face of the issue has been transformed by increasing rates of prescription drug abuse among service members. To better understand the current substance use problems within the U.S. military, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the IOM to analyze policies and programs that pertain to prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of substance use disorders for active duty service members in all branches, members of the National Guard and Reserve, and military families. The IOM concludes that to deal with this public health crisis, the DoD will need to consistently implement evidence-based prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment services and take leadership for ensuring that these services expand and improve.
  • Released: September 12, 2012
    At the turn of the 21st century, several important reports and events led to raised awareness of health disparities and described initial efforts to reduce health disparities. The Surgeon General’s office released reports on health disparities, legislation creating the National Center for Minority and Health Disparities was signed into law, and the IOM released its landmark report, Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Building upon these reports and events, the IOM held a workshop on April 8, 2010, that discussed progress to address health disparities and focused on the success of various federal initiatives to reduce health disparities.
  • Released: September 10, 2012
    Globalization of the food supply has created conditions favorable for the emergence, reemergence, and spread of food-borne pathogens—compounding the challenge of anticipating, detecting, and effectively responding to food-borne threats to health. In the United States, food-borne agents affect 1 out of 6 individuals and cause approximately 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths each year. A One Health approach to food safety may hold the promise of harnessing and integrating the expertise and resources from across the spectrum of multiple health domains including the human and veterinary medical and plant pathology communities with those of the wildlife and aquatic health and ecology communities. The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on December 13 and 14, 2011 that examined issues critical to the protection of the nation’s food supply.
  • Released: September 07, 2012
    The IOM report, From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development, called for a fundamental reexamination of the nation’s response to the needs of young children and families, drawing upon a wealth of scientific knowledge that had emerged in recent decades. It has helped to foster a highly dynamic and increasingly visible science of early childhood development and contributed to a growing public understanding of the foundational importance of the early childhood years. Ten years later, October 27-28, 2010, the IOM and the National Research Council held a workshop to review and commemorate a decade of advances related to the mission of the report.
  • Released: September 06, 2012
    America's health care system has become far too complex and costly to continue business as usual. Pervasive inefficiencies, an inability to manage a rapidly deepening clinical knowledge base, and a reward system poorly focused on key patient needs, all hinder improvements in the safety and quality of care and threaten the nation's economic stability and global competitiveness. In the face of these realities, the IOM convened the Committee on the Learning Health Care System in America to explore these central challenges to health care today. The product of the committee’s deliberations, Best Care at Lower Cost, points out that emerging tools like computing power, connectivity, team-based care, and systems engineering techniques—tools that were previously unavailable—make the present opportunities for better health care in America. Applying these new strategies can support the transition to a continuously learning health system, one that aligns science and informatics, patient-clinician partnerships, incentives, and a culture of continuous improvement to produce the best care at lower cost. The report’s recommendations speak to the many stakeholders in the health care system and outline the concerted actions necessary across all sectors to achieve the needed transformation.
  • Released: September 05, 2012
    Genomic information has significantly increased our understanding of disease and the integration of genome-based strategies into drug discovery and development processes has resulted in the recent successful development of a number of new targeted therapeutics. However, there remains skepticism over how useful genomic information will be to the larger drug development process, requiring examination of the impact of and challenges for incorporating genome-based strategies. On March 21, 2012, the IOM held a workshop to examine the general approaches being used to apply genome-based research results to the discovery and development of new drugs, the successes achieved so far, and the challenges ahead.
  • Released: August 22, 2012
    Although many scientific opportunities exist for the development of new drugs and diagnostics, only a small fraction of investigational products are successfully developed into cures and therapies that can be accessed by patients. The newly developed Cures Acceleration Network (CAN)—a part of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) within the National Institutes of Health (NIH)—has the potential to catalyze widespread changes in NCATS, NIH, and the drug development ecosystem in general. On June 4–5, 2012, the IOM Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation held a workshop to explore options and opportunities in the implementation of CAN.
  • Released: July 31, 2012
    As part of the critical infrastructure of any community, health systems and assets are vital not only for the safety and well-being of its citizens, but also for the economic vitality, quality of life, and livelihood of the entire community. The IOM Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events sponsored a town hall session at the 2012 Public Health Preparedness Summit, held February 21-24 in Anaheim, CA. The session focused on sustaining health care delivery beyond the initial response to a disaster and facilitating the full long-term recovery of the local health care delivery systems.
  • Released: July 26, 2012
    At the request of NASA, the IOM formed a committee to review NASA Human Research Program’s (HRP’s) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes. The scientific merit assessment processes have been developed by NASA to evaluate individual directed research tasks in order to ensure the scientific integrity of the HRP’s directed research portfolio. The committee evaluated the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to direct research tasks – commissioned or noncompetitively awarded research that is not competitively solicited. These processes are funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies.