About Publications

Publications from the AffiliateMarketIngtools of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes We Treat You (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Released: January 13, 2012
    In 2010, the IOM released a report that found, among other things, data not being reported by sex had slowed progress in women’s health. The number of women participating in clinical trials has increased over the last two decades, though they are still underrepresented. Even when women are included in these trials, however, the results are often not analyzed separately by sex. On August 30, 2011, The IOM’s Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice hosted a workshop to address the recommendation that journals should adopt a guideline that all papers report the outcomes of research on males and females separately.
  • Released: December 21, 2011
    The development and application of regulatory science – which FDA has defined as the science of developing new tools, standards, and approaches to assess the safety, efficacy, quality, and performance of FDA-regulated products – calls for a well-trained, scientifically engaged, and motivated workforce. FDA faces challenges in retaining regulatory scientists and providing them with opportunities for professional development. In the private sector, advancement of innovative regulatory science in drug development has not always been clearly defined, well coordinated, or connected to the needs of the agency. As a follow-up to a 2010 workshop, the IOM held a workshop on September 20-21, 2011, to provide a format for establishing a specific agenda to implement the vision and principles relating to a regulatory science workforce and disciplinary infrastructure as discussed in the 2010 workshop.
  • Released: December 15, 2011
    For many years, experiments using chimpanzees have been instrumental in advancing scientific knowledge and have led to new medicines to prevent life-threatening and debilitating diseases. However, recent advances in alternate research tools have rendered chimpanzees largely unnecessary as research subjects. The IOM, in collaboration with the National Research Council, conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific necessity of chimpanzees for NIH-funded biomedical and behavioral research. The committee concludes that while the chimpanzee has been a valuable animal model in the past, most current biomedical research use of chimpanzees is not necessary, though noted that that it is impossible to predict whether research on emerging or new diseases may necessitate chimpanzees in the future.
  • Released: December 14, 2011
    Smoking-related diseases kill more Americans than alcohol, illegal drugs, murder and suicide combined. The passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the FDA authority to regulate “modified risk tobacco products” (MRTPs), tobacco products that are either designed or advertised to reduce harm or the risk of tobacco-related disease. MRTPs must submit to the FDA scientific evidence to demonstrate the product has the potential to reduce tobacco related harms as compared to conventional tobacco products. The IOM identifies minimum standards for scientific studies that an applicant would need to complete to obtain an order to market the product from the FDA.
  • Released: December 08, 2011
    The demand for health care is growing as the nation ages and seeks to provide coverage for the millions of Americans who lack health insurance. At the same time, escalating costs have led to a variety of initiatives to make the delivery of health care more effective and efficient. The allied health workforce is critical to the success of these efforts. The IOM held a workshop May 9-10, 2011, to examine the current allied health care workforce and consider how it can contribute to improving health care access, quality, and effectiveness.
  • Released: December 07, 2011
    More than 230,000 new cases of breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed in the United States in 2011. The IOM was asked to review the current evidence on breast cancer and the environment, review challenges in studying this topic, explore evidence-based actions that women might take to reduce their risk, and recommend future research. Overall, it finds that major advances have been made in understanding breast cancer and its risk factors, but more needs to be learned about its causes, how environmental exposures affect risk for the disease, and how to prevent it.
  • Released: November 30, 2011
    After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and subsequent anthrax mailings, the U.S. government prioritized a biosurveillance strategy aimed at detecting, monitoring, and characterizing national security health threats in human and animal populations, food, water, agriculture, and the environment. However, gaps and challenges in biosurveillance efforts and integration of biosurveillance activities remain. September 8-9, 2011, the IOM held a workshop to explore the information-sharing and collaboration processes needed for the nation’s integrated biosurveillance strategy.
  • Released: November 23, 2011
    The completion of the initial draft of the human genome sequence in 2001 represented a fundamental shift in the way biology was studied, and allowed for vast post-genomic possibilities. Until the past decade, the work was often painstakingly slow; however, new strategies combining engineering and biological techniques have enhanced researchers' abilities. These new synthetic techniques allow for genes and long chains of DNA to be designed and manufactured from scratch using a computer and relevant chemical compounds, rather than manipulating pieces of existing genes from living cells. The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop March 14-15, 2011 to explore the scientific and policy dimensions of recent developments in genetic engineering and their applications to emerging infectious diseases.
  • Released: November 15, 2011
    Early childhood care and education (ECCE) settings offer an opportunity to provide children with a solid beginning in all areas of their development. The quality and efficacy of these settings depend largely on the individuals within the ECCE workforce. Policy makers need a complete picture of ECCE teachers and caregivers in order to tackle the persistent challenges facing this workforce. The IOM and the National Research Council hosted a workshop to describe the ECCE workforce and outline its parameters. Speakers explored issues in defining and describing the workforce, the marketplace of ECCE, the effects of the workforce on children, the contextual factors that shape the workforce, and opportunities for strengthening ECCE as a profession.
  • Released: November 14, 2011
    Nearly half of all American adults lack health literacy – an individual’s ability to obtain, process, and understand basic health information. In order to improve knowledge among these 90 million people, the IOM, along with the UCLA Anderson School of Management, held a workshop on November 30, 2010, to explore ways in which state-based organizations and individuals can work to improve health literacy.
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