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Publications from the AffiliateMarketIngtools of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes We Treat You (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Released: June 05, 2013
    In 2010, more than 105,000 people were injured or killed in the United States as the result of a firearm-related incident. Recent, highly publicized, tragic mass shootings in Newtown, CT; Aurora, CO; Oak Creek, WI; and Tucson, AZ, have sharpened the American public’s interest in protecting our children and communities from the harmful effects of firearm violence. While many Americans legally use firearms for a variety of activities, fatal and nonfatal firearm violence poses a serious threat to public safety and welfare. The IOM, in collaboration with the National Research Council, was asked to develop a potential research agenda that focuses on the causes of, possible interventions to, and strategies to minimize the burden of firearm-related violence. The proposed research agenda focuses on the characteristics of firearm violence, risk and protective factors, interventions and strategies, the impact of gun safety technology, and the influence of video games and other media.
  • Released: May 23, 2013
    Currently, less than half of youth meet the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendation of at least 60 minutes of daily vigorous to moderate-intensity physical activity, meaning that today, kids exercise less. Kids’ health risks are increased by a lack of physical activity, which can also jeopardize their well-being throughout their lives. Physical activity is also critical to kids’ cognitive development and academic success. The school environment is key in encouraging and providing opportunities for kids to be active. In this light, the IOM was asked to examine the status of physical activity and physical education efforts in schools, how physical activity and fitness affect health outcomes, and what can be done to help schools get kids to become more active—ultimately improving kids’ health.
  • Released: May 14, 2013
    Despite public health efforts over the past several decades to encourage people in the United States to consume less sodium, adults still consume an average of 3,400 mg/day, well above the current federal guideline of 2,300 mg or less daily. Evidence has shown that reducing sodium intake reduces blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Some recent research, however, suggests that sodium intakes that are low may also increase health risks – particularly in certain groups. The CDC asked the IOM to examine the designs, methodologies, and conclusions in this latest body of research on dietary sodium intake and health outcomes in the general U.S. population and certain sub-populations. The IOM committee also was asked to comment on the implications of this new evidence for population-based strategies to gradually reduce sodium intake and to identify gaps in data and research and suggest ways to address them.
  • Released: May 13, 2013
    Over the last 100 years, much of the landscape has changed with regards to the health professions and the settings in which these professionals work. Due to societal shifts and technological innovations, changes to the health professions are underway in many parts of the world that call for new models for how health professionals are educated. The IOM Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education held two workshops which set the stage for defining and understanding interprofessional education and provided living histories of speakers from around the world who shared experiences working in and between Interprofessional education and Interprofessional or collaborative practice.
  • Released: April 18, 2013
    An increasingly important aspect of the social and environmental factors that determine whether an individual has a disability is the technology to which that person has access. Technology-driven assistive and adaptive products have improved functioning and quality of life for people of all ages. Furthermore, there is great potential for technology to increase a person’s disability-free years. The IOM-National Research Council Forum on Aging, Disability, and Independence hosted a workshop to examine the ways in which technology can foster independence and healthy aging among working-age individuals with disabilities and among individuals who are developing disabilities while they age.
  • Released: April 03, 2013
    Over the past several decades, new scientific tools and approaches for detecting microbial species have dramatically enhanced our understanding of the microbial flora and fauna and their dynamic interactions with the environments in which they reside. In June 2012, the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop to discuss the scientific tools and approaches being used for detecting and characterizing microbial species, and the roles of microbial genomics and metagenomics to better understand the culturable and unculturable microbial world around us.
  • Released: March 29, 2013
    Pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers, and government agencies compile large quantities of clinical research data, which, if shared more widely both within and across sectors, could improve public health, enhance patient safety, and spur drug development. Despite several barriers to data sharing, there is increasing acknowledgement among researchers of the importance and potential benefits to sharing clinical research data at various stages of the research, discovery, and development pipeline. The IOM hosted a workshop to explore the benefits of sharing clinical research data, the barriers to such sharing, and strategies to address these barriers to facilitate the development of safe, effective therapeutics and diagnostics.
  • Released: March 29, 2013
    The 2011 IOM report, Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating the Evidence, assessed the evidence for the effectiveness of using cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) to treat people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). As one form of treatment for TBI, CRT is a systematic, goal-oriented approach to helping patients overcome cognitive impairments. The 2011 IOM report’s conclusions revolved around the fact that there is little continuity among research studies of the effectiveness of different types of CRT, and there exist only small amounts of evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of using CRT to treat TBI. The IOM held a workshop to discuss the barriers for evaluating the effectiveness of CRT care and for identifying suggested taxonomy, terminology, timing, and ways forward for CRT research.
  • Released: March 27, 2013
    In, Congress authorized compensation for Department of Energy (DOE) workers and contractors who attest that they suffer from a disease that is linked to their occupational exposure to toxic material at nuclear-related sites and facilities. To assist with compensation determinations for DOE contractors, the Department of Labor (DOL) uses a database, the Site Exposure Matrix (SEM), which was designed to organize, display, and communicate information on the toxic substances found at those sites and health effects associated with exposure to the substances. The IOM reviewed the SEM database and its use of a particular database, Haz-Map, as the sources of its toxic substance-occupational disease link. This report describes the strengths and shortcomings of both databases, and offers recommendations for improvements that could be made in both databases with a focus on enhancing the scientific rigor of SEM for both DOL claims examiners and former DOE workers.
  • Released: March 26, 2013
    The sequencing of the human genome and the identification of links between specific genetic variants and diseases have led to tremendous excitement over the potential of genomics to direct patient treatment toward more effective or less harmful interventions. However, stakeholders disagree on whether our current understanding of genomic information is ready for clinical use or whether genomic technologies will add costs to the health care system without providing commensurate benefits. The IOM hosted a workshop to better understand the health economic issues that may arise in the course of integrating genomic data into health care.
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