About Publications

Publications from the AffiliateMarketIngtools of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes We Treat You (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Released: December 14, 2012
    Patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) face lengthy treatment regimens of two years or more with daily, directly observed treatment with second-line anti-TB drugs (SLDs) that are less potent, more toxic, and more expensive than those used to treat drug-susceptible TB. A strengthened global supply chain for SLDs could save lives by consistently delivering high quality medicines to more of the people who need them. Ensuring a reliable and affordable supply of high-quality SLDs is a complex public health intervention that, so far, has not been organized or implemented in a way that allows all providers and patients access to SLDs when they are needed. The IOM held a workshop on July 31 – August 1, 2012, to explore options and opportunities to improve the effectiveness of the global SLD supply chain in delivering drugs to patients.
  • Released: December 10, 2012
    The vast majority of microorganisms live in highly complex communities within which they lead intensely interactive lives—competing, cooperating, and forming associations with one another and with their living and nonliving host environments. Indeed, microbial communities are intricately intertwined with the biology of all ecosystems on Earth—from the extreme environments of the human gut to deep sea hydrothermal vents and the windswept plains of Antarctica. Despite these observations, very little is actually known about the factors and processes that influence community assembly, stability, and function. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the emerging science and potential applications of the “social biology” of microbial communities.
  • Released: December 06, 2012
    Created in 2005, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has carried out its stem cell research mission at an ambitious pace, successfully and thoughtfully providing more than $1.3 billion in awards to 59 institutions. Given the rapid scientific advances in stem cell science, as well as CIRM’s own development, CIRM must now transition its scientific program and the nature of its partnerships to meet new needs. At the request of CIRM, the IOM independently reviewed its programs, operations and strategies since its beginning. This report offers recommendations aimed at assisting CIRM as it develops its plans to realize the clinical benefits of regenerative medicine and to build a sustainable platform that takes greatest advantage of its many achievements.
  • Released: November 20, 2012
    Since the 1996 IOM report, Telemedicine: A Guide to Assessing Telecommunications for Health Care, attention to telehealth has continued to grow in both the public and private sectors. Peer-reviewed journals and professional societies are devoted to telehealth, the federal government provides grant funding to promote the use of telehealth, and the private technology industry continues to develop new applications for telehealth. However, barriers remain to the use of telehealth. The IOM held a workshop to examine how the use of telehealth technology can fit into the U.S. health care system.
  • Released: November 08, 2012
    One of the many benefits of the U.S. food system is a safe, nutritious, and consistent food supply. However, the same system also creates significant environmental, public health, and other costs that generally are not captured in the retail price of food. A better understanding of the costs and benefits of the food system would help decision makers, researchers, and practitioners make informed business and management decisions that would expand the benefits of the U.S. food system even further. The IOM and the National Research Council held a workshop to explore the external costs of food, the methodologies for quantifying those costs, and the limitations of the methodologies.
  • Released: November 02, 2012
    Over the last century, the major causes of disease and death among Americans have changed, shifting from predominantly communicable diseases spread by germs to chronic ailments. This shift has been accompanied by a deeper understanding about what keeps people healthy or leaves them vulnerable to becoming ill. Despite their importance to preventing illness, determining the value of community-based interventions has proven difficult. This report proposes a framework to assess the value of community-based, non-clinical prevention policies and wellness strategies.
  • Released: November 02, 2012
    Over the last century, the major causes of disease and death among Americans have changed, shifting from predominantly communicable diseases spread by germs to chronic ailments. This shift has been accompanied by a deeper understanding about what keeps people healthy or leaves them vulnerable to becoming ill. Despite their importance to preventing illness, determining the value of community-based interventions has proven difficult. This report proposes a framework to assess the value of community-based, non-clinical prevention policies and wellness strategies.
  • Released: November 02, 2012
    Over the last century, the major causes of disease and death among Americans have changed, shifting from predominantly communicable diseases spread by germs to chronic ailments. This shift has been accompanied by a deeper understanding about what keeps people healthy or leaves them vulnerable to becoming ill. Despite their importance to preventing illness, determining the value of community-based interventions has proven difficult. This report proposes a framework to assess the value of community-based, non-clinical prevention policies and wellness strategies.
  • Released: November 01, 2012
    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, causing more than 440,000 deaths every year. Tobacco use is linked to the development of 18 different types of cancer and accounts for at least 30 percent of all cancer deaths. Despite the widespread agreement on the dangers of tobacco use and considerable success in reducing the smoking rate by half since the first U.S. Surgeon General’s report on smoking in 1964, progress in reducing tobacco use has slowed in recent years. The IOM held a workshop to examine current challenges in tobacco control and to explore potential policy, outreach, and treatment strategies that could reduce tobacco-related cancer incidence and death.
  • Released: October 24, 2012
    One of the most intimate relationships that our body has with the outside world is through our gut. Our gastrointestinal tracts harbor a vast and still largely unexplored microbial world known as the human microbiome that scientists are only just beginning to understand. Researchers are recognizing the integral role of the microbiome in human physiology, health, and disease, and the intimate nature of the relationships between microbiome and host. While there is still a great deal to learn, the newfound knowledge already is being used to develop dietary interventions aimed at preventing and modifying disease risk by leveraging the microbiome. The IOM held a public workshop to explore current and emerging knowledge on the human microbiome, its role in human health, its interaction with the diet, and the translation of new research findings into tools and products that improve the healthfulness of the food supply.